Grade 6

Grade 6 Curriculum


Sixth grade is an essential time in a child’s social, emotional and cognitive growth. Students embark on a journey filled with a myriad of new challenges and changes as they move toward young adulthood. 


At Cambridge Friends School, our goals are to:


  • Affirm students’ identities, diversity of perspectives, backgrounds, and racial identities
  • Build empathy, community and connection to the Middle School  
  • Build upon a continued sense of civic responsibility and inspire change-makers
  • Ground students in an understanding of the larger social, economic and political landscape of the United States, currently and historically
  • Foster a love of learning  
  • Deepen students’ critical thinking and inferential skills
  • Foster growing self-awareness, social awareness, empathy, growth mindset, and responsible, ethical decision-making
  • Develop critical thinking skills including perspective taking, systems thinking, and analysis
  • Develop executive functioning skills such as time management and organization
  • Build confidence in one’s own ideas and opinions
  • Communicate effectively both orally and in written expression


Sixth grade is a year of significant transition for students as they gain more independence and apply the skills they have learned in more complex and multifaceted ways. The structure of the school day significantly changes from the Lower School model of mainly one teacher to multiple teachers, students move from class to class, and the volume of work expected increases. Students become increasingly responsible for being aware of their own schedules and keeping track of their school materials and assignments. A major focus, therefore, is on developing the executive functioning skills, such as time management and organization, necessary to be a successful, independent middle-school student.


Cambridge Friends School sixth-grade students kick-off the year with a three-day immersive visit to Farm School, a small New England dairy farm, in Orange, MA. Students have the opportunity to not just visit a farm, but to actually be a part of farm life. They feed and groom the animals, muck out stalls, repair equipment, harvest vegetables, and cook meals. They may plant garlic bulbs that will be harvested by another group in the spring or enjoy maple syrup on their pancakes at breakfast that was collected in the spring. This experience gives our students the opportunity to learn about and appreciate where their food comes from and the amount of hard work it takes to sustain a farm. Students work cooperatively and collaboratively at Farm School, building a stronger sense of community within our classroom when we return.


In the spring, the CFS  sixth-grade Humanities curriculum culminates in a hands-on, multi-disciplinary project to create their own ideal civilizations, complete with a system of government, laws, religion, and economy. This is a synthesis of our work around our theme of Ancient Civilizations and our literature unit exploring utopias and dystopias. Students use the techniques they learn in the art studio in the spring to craft a clay artifact from their civilization that will tell something about the people who live there. They draw detailed maps of their civilization and create a 3-D replica of a building from their civilization in our Maker Space.


At Cambridge Friends School, in sixth-grade Humanities, students learn to engage with literature in meaningful and mindful ways. We use a variety of historical and contemporary texts and resources to make personal connections between our individual experiences and the greater world in which we live. Through projects, academic endeavors, and discussions, students work collaboratively to establish a positive learning environment that aims to honor all perspectives, similarities, and differences. Our students develop critical thinking and literacy skills by engaging with more complex literature, develop their writing skills across a variety of genres, and hone their ability to responsibly evaluate history and the varieties of perspectives that create it. The Quaker Testimonies provide the lens through which we view our curriculum and conduct our discussions.


The underlying theme for our work in sixth grade is the study of Ancient Civilizations. We investigate the origins and development of major ancient societies of both western and non-western civilizations, including the Near East, Africa, Greece, Rome, India, China, and the Americas. By examining the contributions these civilizations have made to the development of society, our students better understand the world we live in today.


Students begin the year with a unit exploring community, looking specifically at what makes a community, why people form communities, what an individual’s responsibility is to a community and what a community’s responsibility is to each individual, and what is more important – the community or the individual. In this context, our reading and writing focuses on the genre of memoir as we learn to share our own stories and build community within our classroom. Students identify the qualities of an effective memoir, develop a clear voice in their writing, and write from their own experience.


We will then turn our attention to an in-depth study of Ancient Civilizations, as we learn how the social sciences contribute to our understanding of the world. Our essential questions will include:


  • How does learning about ancient cultures impact how we understand the world and our connections to other people and countries?
  • How does geography influence how people live, move, and define regions?
  • How does the movement of ideas, goods, and people affect cultures?
  • What was the role of religion in ancient civilizations and how does it still impact the world?
  • How were the systems of power, authority, and governance used to establish order in ancient civilizations? How are they still present in today’s modern government?


Sixth grade ends the year with a close examination of the current water crisis around the globe.  We discuss the views of water as a right and as a commodity, investigate the conflicts that have arisen from unequal access to safe drinking water, and analyze who decides and by what criteria how water will be used when there are competing water needs. Throughout the unit, students have the opportunity to consider their own civic responsibilities and form an action plan for responding to the injustice of water insecurity in our world today.


Throughout the year, students have the opportunity to read and write across a wide range of genres, including analytical essays, poetry, feature articles, and short stories. Through collaborative and independent projects, field trips, guest experts, research projects, and oral and visual presentations, sixth-graders further deepen their understanding of each unit.


By the end of the school year, these are some of the skills that we expect CFS sixth-grade students will have developed:


  • Use metacognitive strategies and track their reading, pausing appropriately to reflect
  • Identify and discuss cultural or historical perspectives that are in conflict in the text, or that are different from their own perspectives 
  • Learn to understand and form implicit questions and search for answers in the text during discussions 
  • Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations, expressing their own ideas clearly and persuasively
  • Think critically about the quality of writing, accuracy, and the logic of conclusions 
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience 
  • Use tools to self-evaluate and self-edit effectively to create polished pieces of writing 
  • Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, using relevant information from multiple print and digital resources  


Sixth-grade math at Cambridge Friends School focuses on the development of conceptual understanding, fluency, and application of mathematical concepts using a rigorous, differentiated, research-based curriculum, Go Math!, as the foundation of the course.


Using the 5 E instructional model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate), we build and reinforce the students’ foundational math skills while applying them to real-world situations and scenarios. Each unit is designed to build on and connect to other important mathematical concepts and requires higher-level thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Our students learn to reason effectively, share their mathematical thinking both verbally and in written form, and develop strong mathematical practices as they delve into the concepts presented in each unit.


Units of study include:


1.) Numbers

  • Comparing and ordering integers
  • Factors and multiples
  • Rational numbers


2.) Number Operations

  • Operations with fractions
  • Operations with decimals


3.) Proportionality: Ratios and Rates

  • Representing ratios and rates
  • Solving problems with proportions
  • Percents, fraction and decimal equivalence


4.) Equivalent Expressions

  • Exponents
  • Prime factorizations
  • Generating equivalent algebraic expressions


5.) Equations and Inequalities

  • Addition and subtraction equations
  • Multiplication and division equations
  • Relationships in two variables
  • Graphing on the coordinate plane
  • Writing equations from tables


6.) Relationships in Geometry

  • Area and polygons
  • Distance and area in the coordinate plane
  • Surface area and volume of solids


7.) Displaying, Analyzing, and Summarizing Data

  • Mean absolute deviation
  • Box plots
  • Dot plots and data distribution


By the end of the school year, these are some of the skills that we expect CFS sixth-grade students will have developed:


  • Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real-world situation
  • Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1 – 100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor
  • Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions
  • Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x+p=q and px=q 
  • Analyze the relationship between dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation
  • Apply the formulas V=lwh and V=bh to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems
  • Solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane


In sixth-grade science, Cambridge Friends School students address the essential question: What is life? Our approach to this topic largely follows a micro- to macro-scale progression, allowing students to examine life in the context of its basic building blocks all the way to the functioning of highly complex life systems. Students will be exploring this topic by investigating “real world phenomena,” a core concept of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).


We begin the year with a unit focused on discovering the most effective ways to make a scientific claim, present evidence and form logical explanations or compelling arguments based on the results of an investigation. Upon completion of this mini unit, students work in collaboration to compose a set of criteria that all living things share. These two mini lessons form the foundation for an in-depth examination of life’s essential building block: the cell. After completing a content assessment on the material, students use knowledge of cell function, DNA, and protein-building to kick off our genetics unit. As we continue to explore life on an increasingly macro scale, students examine larger systems and apply their knowledge of Mendelian genetics to the concept of evolution through natural selection. This unit challenges students to question both the uniqueness and similarities that all life forms possess in relation to each other. To conclude the year, students look at human body systems and pull together concepts on cells, genetics, and evolution to understand the inter-connectivity of human body systems and how the complexity of each system has uniquely evolved to sustain life. We utilize the Maker Space during this unit – utilizing the engineering and design process in order to form a deeper understanding of how each unit covered this year is connected.


By the end of the school year, these are some of the skills that we expect CFS sixth-grade students will have developed:


    • Use inquiry-driven and project-based science work to explore biology
    • Demonstrate preliminary knowledge of biology on a micro- to macro-scale progression
    • Find the most effective ways to present evidence and form logical explanations or compelling arguments based on the results of an investigation
    • Use discussion and debate to connect their research to current issues – both locally and globally
    • Demonstrate understanding of concepts, facts, and vocabulary during class discussions and project/lab work
    • Demonstrate cooperative learning by supporting intellectual risk-taking, actively listening, and participating positively in group work
    • Follow experimental protocols and use materials appropriately
    • Use tools appropriately and as necessary to gather qualitative and quantitative data


The personal identity of each Cambridge Friends School Middle School student is at the core of the Middle School arts program. The sixth-grade visual arts course introduces students to the Middle School art studio, and offers students the structure and support to explore numerous ways of expressing their thoughts, feelings and ideas as they build and refine their creative skills with materials.


The structure of the studio is built around the in-depth study of materials and personal choice. During in-depth studies, students explore a material, practice and refine skills, and use the material to create a major project. Each in-depth project is a multi-step design problem. An important goal of in-depth projects is for students to practice working both independently and collaboratively. Often, major projects are collaborations between visual art and another discipline.


Personal choice occurs between major projects and gives students the opportunity to learn from the art studio. Personal choice is not an unstructured time. During personal choice, each student chooses to work on a number of design challenges, or experiment with a material, or propose an independent project.

Physical Education

Middle School Physical Education aims to develop basic skills, concepts, and dispositions needed to lead a physically active lifestyle. Students transition through a variety of movements, and skill-based units including, individual, partner, small-sided, and large group activities, all of which aim to promote activity levels, movement, and increase a student’s sense of self-confidence. Warm-up routines combine a variety of activities, enabling opportunities for students to increase flexibility, strength, and endurance levels.


By the end of the school year, these are some of the skills that we expect CFS sixth-grade students will have developed: 


  • Build upper-body and core strength, flexibility, and endurance capacity through fitness routines
  • Learn mindful breathing exercises to calm bodies down before transitioning back to homerooms
  • Develop and build a variety of skills involved in playing soccer, floor hockey, basketball, volleyball, and badminton games
  • Understand basic game rules and terminology 
  • Explore cross-curriculum work combining Spanish and physical education through dance and movement
  • Negotiate more challenging team building initiatives and concepts of leadership, trust, problem-solving, conflict resolution, and working together to achieve a common goal


Students in grade six focus on the history of the English language during their library time. Through Beowulf, students understand how historical movements of populations have created new languages, as seen through stories that reflect the traditional culture and beliefs of Northern Europe. Stories surrounding King Arthur provide students with an understanding of the origin of medieval legends and how legends influence historical truth, folklore and myth. English has such a large and varied vocabulary, with words from many language families.


By the end of the school year, these are some of the skills that we expect CFS sixth-grade students will have developed:


  • Use online databases for doing biographical research
  • Learn about the life experiences and professional approaches of each guest author and illustrator
  • Share their reading experiences with the class and learn to express why they enjoy certain books or genres
  • Learn how to tell a story to others using techniques from oral storytelling and theater



The Cambridge Friends School sixth-grade drama program begins with students being introduced to the on-camera medium through acting for the camera. Through a myriad of commercial, film, and television scripts, actors learn how to build a strong on-camera audition, ripe with confidence and a sense of character in a natural, conversational way. Through mock auditions, students will learn what gets you that callback. Once the foundation has been built, actors will learn what happens once you book the job.


Our second semester in sixth grade finds students choosing short stories and adapting them into script form. Character development is looked at through the lens of familiarity with the stories themselves. Our students are encouraged to pick stories that they feel a connection to, and to develop their own version of these characters. They are taught to adapt stories into functional scripts that young audiences can follow. Students are also introduced to the concepts of “given information,” and learn how to integrate their own choices into preconceived characters. 


By the end of the school year, these are some of the skills that we expect CFS sixth-grade students will have developed:


  • Understand the difference between stage and screen acting
  • Able to work closely to oversee script from idea to edited final copy 

  • Adapt to wearing a variety of hats and know how to juggle responsibility of all 

  • Manage time (always on a deadline) 

  • Work as a group to problem solve and support each other 


Spanish Language and Latinx Studies

In this class, students enhance their proficiency in the Spanish language through interpersonal communication, the study of some grammar, and learning about Spanish culture. Students work both individually and collaboratively completing projects and other assignments geared toward expanding their listening comprehension, oral proficiency, and written expression in Spanish. They are able to communicate in the following ways: telling time, counting numbers from 0 to 1,000, stating dates and important holidays, using simple present verbs like “tener,” “ser,” “estar,” and “llamarse,” the weather, Hispanic speaking countries, and topics of personal interest. Students are also able to use the present indicative, describe people, and say familiar commands. By the end of the year, students use Spanish to the best of their ability. The Massachusetts Curriculum Framework is also included in this course: Comparisons, Communications, Connections, Culture, and Communities.


The Latinx Studies middle-school program is an interdisciplinary course of studies in humanities, art, culture, social justice, and society. Each grade-level focuses on an integrated unit ranging from early Latin American civilizations, ancient civilizations, Spanish colonization, immigration, US colonization, imperialism and social/solidarity movements in the United States. In sixth grade, students focus on the early Latin American ancient civilizations of the Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca.


By the end of the school year, these are some of the skills that we expect CFS sixth-grade students will have developed:


Spanish Language: 


  • Sustain a longer conversation in Spanish giving information about themselves and asking similar questions about others
  • Tell important dates, time, numbers 1,000 to 10,000, the weather, and identify Spanish-speaking countries and their capitals
  • Expand on their usage of the verbs “ser,” “estar,” “tener,” and “gustar,” “encantar,” “aburrir,” and start using new verbs like “llamarse,” “moverse,” and “vivir”
  • Express likes, dislikes, and ask basic questions with the verbs “to be” and “to have”
  • Able to report customs and traditions from Spanish-speaking countries and make comparisons and connections among cultures and communities


Latinx Studies:


  • Able to explain how we know what we know about the Indigenous populations including limitations and why those limitations exist
  • Speak about the major accomplishments of the Taino, Aztec, Inca, and Mayan civilizations
  • Explain why Columbus and other Europeans thought that members of these societies needed to be “civilized” 
  • Discus how the American government treated Latinos throughout its history and the major reasons for this treatment